BIOTECH AND PHARMABiotech and PharmaJournal

COVID-19 infection: Disease detection and Mobile Technology

Amar Shankar Mishra and Jaya Verma
CIPL, New Delhi, Amity University, Noida, India
Email address for correspondence: [email protected]

Abstract

A pneumonia outbreak of unknown etiology took place in Wuhan, Hubei province, China & spread quickly worldwide in December 2019. Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CCDC) identified a novel beta-coronavirus called 2019-nCoV, now officially known as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that responsible for the pandemic. The coronavirus COVID-19 affected 215 countries and territories around the world more than 48 lakh people at present. At this time, there are no specific vaccines or treatments for COVID-19. However, there are many ongoing clinical trials evaluating potential treatments. So only precautions are the best way to keep ourselves safe. The aim of this review article is to aware the audience about the important role of Mobile Technology for SARS-CoV-2, which is helpful to detect the disease as well as It can help to aware people stay safe and adopt necessary precaution in some areas where there are cases, help stop or prevent community transmission to an extent.

Introduction

A highly pathogenic and transmittable viral infection caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), named coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) which emerged in Wuhan city, China & now spread around 215 countries in the world. This viruses is a member of the Coronaviridae family in the Nidovirales order. This is structured as crown-like spikes on the outer surface as shown in Fig.1a; thus, it was called as a coronavirus. Coronaviruses contain a single-stranded RNA as a nucleic material having size of 65–125 nm (diameter) and length range is 26 to 32kbs. Coronaviruses family have four subgroups; alpha, beta, gamma & delta coronavirus. Acute lung injury & acute respiratory distress syndrome are caused by SARS-CoV, H5N1 influenza A, H1N1 2009 and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), which leads to pulmonary collapse & death

Figure 1. (a) Structure of corona virus 4 The symptoms of covid-19 & how it spreads [5]

Fig.1b have shown the symptoms of corona virus infected person such as, fever, chest pain, breathing difficulties, cough, rapid heartbeat, etc. and it can spread via coughing and sneezing among peoples.

Methodologies adopted for COVID-19 detection

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), it is critical to diagnosis COVID-19. Understanding epidemiology, tracking the virus & to suppressing transmission is very difficult. This investigation portrays the vital utilization of demonstrative testing in various transmission situations of the COVID-19 out-break, from no cases to network transmission, including how testing may be defended when absence of reagents or testing limit requires prioritization of specific populaces or people for testing. Numerous in-house and business measures that identify the COVID-19 infection have been created or are as of now being worked on. A significant number of these molecular assays are presently being demonstrated in associated laboratories. An outline of assays that have used to identify or detect COVID-19 at present is PCR protocols assays, discussed in this article

Available tests for coronavirus infection

There are two main types of tests in this, as shown in Fig 2. The initial, an antigen test, distinguishes the existence or nonattendance in the body of the new coronavirus, which causes the infection Covid-19. Secondary, an anti-body test, searches for signs that somebody has been contaminated in the past via scanning for an immune response.

Chinese researchers in mid-January generated the full hereditary code of the infection — formally known as Sars-CoV-2 — labs placed all over the world have adopted this option to utilize antigen testing to distinguish its gens in tests from patients and this methodology called polymerase chain response (PCR). PCR tests can emerge out of a few distinct sites in the patient. Most straightforward is the nasal swab taken from well inside of the nose. The rear of the throat is another alternative but the sample from the lower respiratory tract may give the best outcomes. Antigen testing uncovers whether somebody has a present contamination and could in this way give Covid-19 to other people. [6].

Prof. Eleanor Riley from University of Edinburgh reported that antibody assessment deals with blood tests to distinguish the insusceptibility presented by past contamination. The test units use proteins from the infection as “glue” to trap antibodies present in blood.

Figure 2. Coronavirus testing methods [6]

Epidemiological summary

More than 42 lakhs cases of coronavirus disease have been reported from 31 December 2019 to 11 May 2020, (in accordance with the applied case definitions and testing strategies in the affected countries) including around 2,87,355 deaths (Fig. 3) [7] . In table 1, we have shown current scenario of COVID-19 pandemic in throughout the world.

Table 1: Global scenario over active and death cases of COVID-19 as on May 11, 2020 

Figure 3. (a) Day-to-day distribution of confirmed cases of COVID-19 over the continent (b) Distribution of daily death of COVID-19 over the continent (c) Distribution of cumulative death of COVID-19 over the continent (d) Comparison between Actual Death and death rate of COVID-19 over the continent (e) Death Rate distribution of COVID-19 of top 40 countries over the continent# as of 11 May 2020. [7]

At present, COVID-19 is a universal concern for public health emergency. Patients contracting the acute form of the infection constitute approximately 15% of the cases [8]. There is no known particular effectual verified pharmacological treatment as of the time. Investigations and tests of several potential drugs and therapies are also being conducted [9]. In-vitro research study have proposed that chloroquine, an immunomodulant medicate customarily used to treat intestinal sickness, is viable in diminishing viral replication in different contaminations, including the SARS-related coronavirus (CoV) & MERS-CoV. However, the efficacy and safety of chloroquine for treatment of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia remains unclear [10-12]. WHO and other research institute scientists are continuously working on it for development of vaccine. So, the easiest way to protect ourselves using digital technologies at present from COVID-19.

Smartphone Technology to fight against COVID-19

Mobile phone applications are assuming a significant role in the reaction to the Covid-19 pandemic. These applications are being utilized to follow contaminated individuals, issue selfisolate rules, impart up-to date communication to the people & this facility reduce the burden on healthcare staff over the world. These applications (apps) have been installed by many people. This technology has come to the rescue in diagnosing those infected, distinguishing hotspots and getting constant updates. In this article, most favoured cell phone applications are reviewed to follow Corona virus disease [13].

TraceTogether

This is a well-known smartphone contact tracing app that that utilizes bluetooth to follow infected individuals and aware the persons who have been near them in the previous 15 days. Anybody with a Singapore versatile number and a bluetooth empowered cell phone can download this application.

The application (Fig.4a) was originated by the Govt. Tech. organization in association with Ministry of Health (MOH) & has become a model for some, other contact tracking applications in different places of the world. At the point when two individuals utilizing the application are close, the two mobile phones will utilize bluetooth to trade a provisional ID. This provisional ID is produced by encrypting the user’s identity with a special key held by the MOH. The MOH uses this key only for decoding and doesn’t disclose the details of that person or other one. This application does not collect data on the position of the GPS or the Wi-Fi / mobile network.This is a well-known smartphone contact tracing app that that utilizes bluetooth to follow infected individuals and aware the persons who have been near them in the previous 15 days. Anybody with a Singapore versatile number and a bluetooth empowered cell phone can download this application. The application (Fig.4a) was originated by the Govt. Tech. organization in association with Ministry of Health (MOH) & has become a model for some, other contact tracking applications in different places of the world. At the point when two individuals utilizing the application are close, the two mobile phones will utilize bluetooth to trade a provisional ID. This provisional ID is produced by encrypting the user’s identity with a special key held by the MOH. The MOH uses this key only for decoding and doesn’t disclose the details of that person or other one. This application does not collect data on the position of the GPS or the Wi-Fi / mobile network.

Aarogya Setu

In this application, surveillance is done through bluetooth that records location-generated graph of any infected person. This application (Fig. 4b) has been created by the Indian Ministry of Electronics & IT and alerts users if they have contacted with someone who has been identified coronavirus positive.

Covid Symptom Tracker

Researchers dissect the high-hazard zones in the United Kingdom, the spread rate of the virus & the most unsafe group, depending on health state. Subsequently, this application was structured by specialists and analysts from King’s College London and St. Thomas medical clinics, in collaboration with a private health organization named Zoe Global. For advanced research, investigation on symptoms of COVID-19 is analyzed by this application & also helps keep track of how it spreads. The application follows the GDPR and the information is utilized distinctly for health research and not for other business purposes (Fig.5a).

The Corona DataSpende

This is a German smart-watch application and screens the spread of coronavirus by gathering essential signs(heart rate, sleep patterns, temperature of the body) from the person through a smartwatch or we can say this app, physical activity tracker. Scans whether they have Covid-19 symptoms or not. The consequences are exhibit on an interactive online map that enable health authorities to take stock of the situation and find out the hotspots (Fig.5b).

CovidWatch

This application permits individuals to secure themselves and their networks without revealing their personal information. This app is designed in collaboration with Stanford University. In this app bluetooth signals are used to identify and warns the person, who comes in the contact with someone who had already tested positive. It was one of the first open source protocol app for decentralized tracing of bluetooth contacts and maintains privacy. A unique characteristic of the application is that any third party, will not be able to track who has been exposed by whom, including the government (Fig.6a).

Let’s Beat Covid-19

This application was developed by MedShr, used by more than one million doctors in diagnosis. LetsBeatCOVID.net is intended to permit individuals from people in general to finish a short study on their health and presentation to COVID-19 with the goal that health administrations can spare more lives. The general population is welcome to finish a short mysterious review of them and is likewise permitted to enter data about their relatives (Fig.6c).

NHS smartphone app

The app was designed by NHSX, the NHS innovation unit, and will be released shortly. The application will keep up control of individuals’ developments and caution the individuals who come into close contact with the individuals who have been tested positive. Specialists propose that by dissecting infection spread examples and hotspots, the application would likewise help in relaxing lockdown. It would order the subtleties dependent on socioeconomics, home structures and portability designs and dependent on this, the most extreme number of individuals would be permitted to move freely. This tracing app is currently developed by the National Health Service, which is the national health system funded by England and soon as it becomes available (Fig.6b).

HaMagen

This application was started by the Israeli Ministry of Health, utilizes contact observing to contain the spread of destructive contamination. The application permits to person know whether they have been near somebody determined to have the infection in the previous fifteen days. When a person introduces the application, its activity are tracked and the gathered data is analyzed with ministry’s data information. If any person was found near a contaminated individual, the application diverts the person to the Ministry of Health site where they can enlist for isolation (Fig.7a).

Kwarantana Dommowa

Poland was one of the primary western nations to develop a cell phone application that gathers a lot of individual data, including the area of individuals and digital photographs, to fight against the pandemic. In this application, individuals transfer their photos when mentioned by specialists, so they can track their precise area. It is compulsory for any individual who has coronavirus symptoms (Fig.7b).

PeduliLindung

This application has been created by the Indonesian Ministry of Communications and Information in collaboration with the Ministry of State Societies. This application permits person to gather information identified with the spread of COVID-19 in their networks and help government endeavors to detect confirmed and suspected cases. Cross references of data stored on the mobile device via bluetooth. At the point when a person is near another person whose information has been transferred to PeduliLindungi, the application permits to identify the person, as per its official site record (Fig.7c).

Limitations of smartphone technology

A major limitation of this smart phone technology is its limited use. People should understand this critical situation of corona virus disease and they need to download an app in their smartphones and update their actual health status. In these applications, a lot depends on messaging and how it is presented, people should understand this is something that protects them and they should use it.

Conclusion

The coronavirus started to spread from the Hunan seafood market at Wuhan, China and quickly spread up to 215 countries. At present there is no promising clinical medications or prevention strategies have been established to fight against human coronaviruses. Our scientists and researchers are continuously working to develop efficient therapeutic strategies to cope with the covid-19. Most importantly, in this situation, human coronaviruses targeting vaccines & antiviral drugs should be designed that could be used against the current as well as future epidemics. There are numerous organizations working for the advancement of successful SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, such as Inovio Pharmaceuticals, Moderna Therapeutics, Novavax, Stermirna Therapeutics, Vir Biotechnology, Johnson & Johnson, GeoVax-BravoVax, VIDO-InterVac, CureVac, Clover Biopharmaceuticals, Codagenix etc. But these vaccines still require 3–9 months for commercialization after rapid human and animal-based successful trails. By that time, it is more important to control the spreading of this virus. In this field, mobile technology is playing an important role by launching apps by various countries to track coronavirus infected people. These apps provide self-isolation guidelines as well as other safety tips. The easy use and successful application of Mobile technology to fight against Covid-19 pandemic, will probably increase the extreme public acceptance soon. As the saying goes, ‘a crisis provides an opportunity’; this first great crisis of 2020 provides a great opportunity for Mobile technology that would be helpful for other areas of healthcare, including chronic disease in the future.

Funding: Not required.
Competing interest: We have no competing interests.
Ethical approval: Not required

Author Contribution:

All persons who meet authorship criteria are listed as authors, and have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for the content, including participation in the concept, design, analysis, writing, or revision of the manuscript. All authors participated in conception and design of the study. JV researched literature and wrote the first draft of the manuscript. ASM prepared Epidemiological summary and other data collections from research articles. All authors reviewed and edited the manuscript and approved the final version of the manuscript. Acknowledgments: We would like to acknowledge World health organization (WHO) as a source of informative data for COVID-19.

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Table 2: List of Abbreviations:

By: Jaya Verma Doctrate Degree Holder 
Amar Shankar Mishra, Data Scientist, CIPL, New Delhi

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