Bangalore: Solar missions are really difficult and many space agencies are working on this from years. So what makes the solar solar missions difficult, as the distance between the Sun and Earth is on average 14.9 million km, compared to just 3.84 lakh km between the Moon and the super-hot temperatures and radiation of the solar atmosphere.
The main objective of the solar mission is the coronal ultraviolet examination of the sun, which will contribute to solving the outstanding questions in solar physics. In addition, instruments to study solar energetic particle fluxes along with a magnetometer payload will reach L1 orbit to measure fluctuations in the magnetic field strength in the halo orbiting the 1,500 kg satellite. The mission aims to study the halo orbit of the suns around the Sun and Earth at Lagrangian Point 1, hence the name Aditya L1. The payload is placed away from the disturbance of Earth’s magnetic field, which is not useful in low Earth orbit as in the previous “Aditya-1” mission, Isro explained. The aim of the AdityA-L1 mission is to study the corona of the sun, the chromosphere and the photosphere.
Isro has selected L1 (Lagrangian point 1) between the Earth and the Sun as the location for the satellite. In the halo orbit, the satellite will study the sun without obstruction by celestial events such as occultations and eclipses. Once L1 is selected, the gravitational pull of the Earth on the Sun will match that of the satellite, which will help balance it out.
Announced in 2008, its maiden mission is to explore the sun, the first of its kind to be launched by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) to explore its atmosphere. The mission, dubbed Aditya L1, which is due to launch next year, will observe the sun up close and try to gather information about its atmosphere and magnetic field. ISRO classifies it as a 400 kg satellite and will launch it with the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) in XL configuration.
His first scientific expedition to explore the sun will be the Aditya L1, Isro 2 astronomy mission, launched in 2015. The mission, scheduled to launch early next year, is Isro’s second space mission (ASTROSat), launched in September 2015. While the ADITYA L1 mission is a sun-specific mission, many other countries have launched similar programs. The Aditya L1 mission of the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) (also called Aditya-L1 mission) is a satellite designed to study the solar corona, the outer layer of the Sun, similar to NASA’s Parker Solar Probe. The project was approved as the first solar mission and will be launched on PSLV-XL from Sriharikota by ISRO in 2019-2020, as stated on its website. The “Aditya” comprises a small, 400 kg Earth-orbiting satellite with a coronagraph for the study of the solar corona.
The Aditya L1 is scheduled to be launched from Sriharikota in Andhra Pradesh in 2019-2020 by Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV-XL). This is the first Indian space mission to study the sun with seven payloads to observe in various wavelengths the photosphere, chromosphere, outermost layer of the sun and corona. The satellite is designed as a 400 kg class satellite carrying a payload with a visible emission line graph (VELC). The Aditya-L1 mission was designed as a single payload 400kg satellite ( Visible Emission Line Coronagraph (VELC)) to study the solar corona (the atmosphere or plasma surrounding the Sun and other stars and is visible to the naked eye during a total solar eclipse) and then to be placed in an 800-kilometre-deep Earth orbit to make it possible to study solar wind. The mission was named “Aditya-1” because observation of the solar corona is limited. The science instrument AdityA-1 was a 20 cm occult coronagraph with an axis of parabolic mirrors that was able to take images of the solar corona through the visible emission lines 5303, XIV and 6374.
The mission will receive simultaneous images of different layers of the sun’s atmosphere to show how energy channels are transmitted from one layer to another. In addition, the ADITYA-L1 mission will investigate particle flows from the sun and fluctuations in magnetic field strength. The goal is to observe the dynamics of events in the solar corona and give estimates of the energy used to accelerate particles during eruptive events. The spectrometer will view the sun as a star and is designed to study hard X-rays (HXR) at 10 keV to 150 keV during the impulse phase of solar flares. The primary payload of the Aditya L1 satellite is a continuous coronagraph designed to observe the solar corona. The revised and extended ADITYA-L1 mission was approved in 2015 by the Indian government and the satellite will be launched from a Sriharikota PSLV-XL vehicle in the 2019-2020 time frame.
The satellite is placed in an orbit around L1, as it has a great advantage in observing the sun during occultations and eclipses. While the solar storm is heading toward Earth and passing L1, the satellite is in a halo orbit around the L1 satellite to get closer to the Sun and Earth system, which has great advantages in observing the solar occultation and eclipse, Isro said on its website. The Aditya spacecraft was developed by ISAC (ISRO Satellite Center) as a standard satellite bus for missions in the fields of remote sensing, communications and space travel. The AdityA-1 mission has been revised and is inserted into a Halo orbit around Lagrangian point 1 (L1) of the Sun-Earth system. It carried six additional payloads for extended scientific range and targets.
With additional experiments, the 400 kg satellite will provide observations of the sun’s photosphere, soft and solid X-rays, chromosphere, UV, corona and visual niro. The Aditya spacecraft is triaxially stabilized with IMS and the Indian mini-satellite bus satellite (SARAL) of the Argos-Altika mission launched in 2011.