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Know the Risk Factors Associated with Kidney Disease


Business Wire India

Understanding Kidney Disease

Kidney disease is a medical condition wherein the functioning of the kidneys is significantly affected. This includes the kidney's ability to filter out water, clean the blood and assist in controlling blood pressure. The kidney also plays a major role in the metabolism of vitamin D and the red blood cell population. Damage to the kidneys leads to the build-up of toxic waste within the body, which can lead to a variety of illnesses such as swollen ankles and legs, poor sleep, nausea, shortness of breath, and weakness.

Therefore, in general, kidney disease has been associated with high prevalence rates, mortality, morbidity and has now become a crucial public health problem. Currently, chronic kidney diseases or kidney diseases, in general, have been shown to cause more deaths than prostate or breast cancer. In India, the International Society of Nephrology's Kidney Disease Data Centre study reports that approximately seventeen percent of the Indian population are affected by kidney disease. This is in close correlation with the global consensus. Various mathematical models suggest that individuals with diabetes, hypertension, obesity, and aged over forty-four years were at high risk of developing kidney diseases such as renal function decline and glomerulosclerosis.

There are primarily two types of kidney diseases. These are:
 

  • Acute kidney diseases. This is a medical condition wherein the kidneys suddenly stop functioning, causing renal failure. This is primarily caused due to lack of proper flow of blood, damaged kidneys, and collected urine.
  • Chronic kidney disease. This is the medical condition wherein the kidneys do not work well for over three months. The body does not display symptoms at the early stages of the disease.
     

While diabetes and hypertension are reported to progress to kidney disease, various other conditions that can impair kidney function are:
 

  • Diseases related to the immune system such as lupus
  • Urinary tract infection in the kidneys such as pyelonephritis
  • Glomeruli inflammation which is commonly prevalent after the strep infection
  • Polycystic kidney disease
  • Long term viral illness such as hepatitis b or C, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)

 

What are the Risk Factors associated with Kidney disease?

Over 1.4 million people worldwide are currently receiving renal replacement therapy. Being a major health problem, kidney disease can progress into end-stage renal disease, which rapidly increases mortality and morbidity.

Various risk factors have been shown to contribute to kidney diseases, such as
 

  1. Diabetes – Diabetes leads to the production of reactive oxygen species, advanced glycosylation end products, and hyperfiltration injury, which results in kidney diseases. Therefore, approximately 41% of the diabetic population is at risk of developing kidney disease towards the end of twenty years.
  2. Smoking – Smoking has been shown to increase the body's pro-inflammatory chemicals, thereby promoting tubular atrophy and glomerulosclerosis, which results in kidney chronic kidney diseases.
  3. Hypertension or high blood pressure – Hypertension progresses to capillary pressure in the glomerulus, which eventually leads to impaired kidney function. This is especially true of subjects who have uncontrolled hypertension for over ten years.
  4. Obesity – Obesity leads to other functional impairments such as hyperfiltration and glomerular hypertrophy, which expedites injury to the kidney due to increased wall pressure in the capillaries.
  5. Abnormal kidney function and structure – Abnormal kidney structure and function accelerate the impairment at an early age leading to kidney diseases.
  6. Advanced age – In general, renal function reduces with age. Therefore, among the population comprising the elderly more than fifty percent were suffering from kidney diseases.
  7. A race such as African American – Various genome-wide studies have been performed to study the genes contributing to kidney diseases. These genes have been seen to be particularly prevalent in certain races.
  8. Gender – Many studies have reported an increased prevalence of kidney disease in men in comparison to women.
     

Various other risks that can increase the chances of developing kidney diseases are obstructive sleep apnoea, increased heart rate, and periodontal diseases.
 

Chronic Kidney Disease Treatment

One must visit the doctor if they observe various symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, fatigue, sleep-associated problems, and are currently suffering from metabolic disorders. The doctor would advise one to perform blood tests, urine tests, various imaging tests, and even sample the kidney for an accurate diagnosis. Based on the results, the Kidney Infection Treatment program is designed. The doctor can design the treatment based on:

 

  1. Cause – The doctor would control the cause that worsens kidney disease. The treatment options are varied, and the kidney damage may worsen.
  2. Complications – The doctor can attempt to resolve the complications such as reducing high blood pressure, cholesterol, and swelling. He may also prescribe other drugs that would protect one’s bones and improve one’s anaemic condition. In addition to this, he would also recommend a low protein diet.
  3. End-stage – If one is diagnosed with end-stage kidney disease, the doctor would recommend Kidney Failure Treatments, including dialysis and kidney transplant. While dialysis is the artificial removal of the toxic products in the blood, a kidney transplant is replacing the damaged kidney with a relative or a deceased individual with a near similar blood profile.
     

Sri Ramakrishna Multi-Speciality Hospital provides Kidney Treatment and works with highly experienced Nephrologists. It takes immense pride in the state-of-the-art infrastructure, including the Dialysis Centre, Kidney Transplant Outcomes and has been able to treat over ten lakh patients thus far. Sri Ramakrishna Hospital (http://www.sriramakrishnahospital.com), rely on their experience and trust of over four decades.

Concluding Remarks

Kidney diseases affect a large proportion of the population and have been associated with increased mortality and morbidity. Various factors contribute to developing kidney diseases such as obesity, diabetes, high blood pressure, and increased age. One can reduce the risk of having kidney diseases by maintaining a healthy weight and following a healthy lifestyle, quitting smoking, following the instruction on the drugs bought over the counter and discussing their medical history with the doctor.


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